Al Idian

Demystifying Delegates in C#


A bit of context

Languages like JavaScript treat functions as first-class citizens. This means functions can be passed as parameters and assigned to variables and invoked through these assigned variables. Consider the following JavaScript code:

// Assign a function to a variable
let functionVar = function (message) {

// Call the function
functionVar("Hello World");

In the snippet above, we assign an anonymous function to the variable functionVar. This allows us to invoke the anonymous function, printing a message to the console. This type of behaviour is central to JavaScript and many other “functional” programming languages.

C# is not a functional programming language, and it does not treat functions as first-class citizens. Nevertheless, there is a way to assign functions to variables and invoke the assigned functions through said variables. We can do this by using delegates.

What is a delegate?

A delegate is a type in C# class, just like class or struct. It represents a reference to a method similar to the way functionVar references our anonymous JavaScript function in the snippet above.

Let’s have a look at the code below and note the delegate declaration:

class Program
static void Main(string[] args)
// Instantiate the delegate
PrintToConsoleDelegate delegateHandler = PrintToConsole;

// Call the delegate
delegateHandler("Hello World");

static void PrintToConsole(string message)

delegate void PrintToConsoleDelegate(string message);

The highlighted line declares the delegate with the following parts: (1) the name PrintToConsoleDelegate, (2) the return type void, and (3) the parameters — this has just one. It looks a lot like a method declaration.

In Main(), we create an instance of PrintToConsoleDelegate and name it delegateHandler. We then assign to it a reference to the static method PrintToConsole. Then calling the delegate causes its assigned function to be invoked.

Any method can be assigned to a delegate as long as it has a return type and a set of parameters that match the delegate declaration. In our example above, any method that takes a string and returns void can be assigned to our delegate.

Assigning methods to a delegate

In the above snippet, we assign a single method to our delegate. But what if we want to assign several methods to a single delegate? This can be done like so:

PrintToConsoleDelegate delegateHandler;
delegateHandler += functionA;
delegateHandler += functionB;
delegateHandler -= functionA;
delegateHandler += functionC;

The snippet above shows how methods can be added — and removed — from the delegate. Because the reference to functionA is removed from delegateHandler in the highlighted line, at the end of the snippet, the delegate will only contain references to functionB and functionC.

What’s next?

Perhaps the biggest application of delegates in C# is events. In a future blog post, I intend to discuss how events are built on top of the functionality of delegates. I plan to do this by transforming our sample delegate functionality above into one that uses events instead.